Psalm relevant to this chapter: Psalm 59.
A. Jonathan defends David before his father Saul.
1. (1a) Saul plots the murder of David, attempting to enlist the help of Jonathan and his servants.
Now Saul spoke to Jonathan his son and to all his servants, that they should kill David.
a. After David killed Goliath, and was honored among the people for this, everything changed in his relationship with Saul. 1 Samuel 18:9 says, So Saul eyed David from that day forward. And since that time, Saul has repeatedly attacked David, with one persistent goal: to eliminate him.
i. Twice, Saul tried to kill David by pinning him to the wall with a spear as David played music for Saul (1 Samuel 18:11).
ii. Saul offered his oldest daughter Merab to David as a trap, hoping the dowry he would arrange would result in David’s death (1 Samuel 18:17).
iii. Saul tried to lead David into the sin of rebellion or treason by suddenly giving Merab to another man when she was promised to David (1 Samuel 18:19).
iv. Saul tried to put David in a place where the Philistines would kill him, in demanding a dowry of 100 Philistine foreskins for marriage to his other daughter, Michal (1 Samuel 18:21-25).
v. None of this worked, but none of it changed Saul’s heart. 1 Samuel 18:29 says, Saul was still more afraid of David. So Saul became David’s enemy continually.
b. Now, Saul persists in his efforts to eliminate David. Saul spoke to Jonathan his son and to all his servants, that they should kill David. David was a marked man, and Saul’s staff was instructed to kill him.
c. What a difficult place for Jonathan his son! Jonathan loved David, and God had made a wonderful bond of friendship between them, sealed by a covenant (1 Samuel 18:1-4). Jonathan knew that David was destined to be the next king of Israel, even though Jonathan himself was officially the crown prince. At the same time, his father and king tells him to kill David!
i. We can see Saul quoting Scripture to Jonathan: “Jonathan, the Bible says Honor your father and mother in Exodus 20:12. I’m your father and your king. You must submit to me as father and king. Go kill David. You are in the perfect place to do it, because he trusts you. God has put you in that place so you can obey me now!” Was Jonathan supposed to submit?
d. What a difficult place for the servants of Saul! They all loved David (he was accepted in the sight of all the people and also in the sight of Saul’s servants, 1 Samuel 18:5). Yet they are commanded by their king to kill David.
i. What of Saul’s servants? Trapp says they were, “Great admirers of David, but now cold friends at best; not one of them speaks for him, and not a few of them are ready to act against him.”
e. What a difficult place for David! Who can he trust? Even if he said, “I can trust Jonathan; I know he would never betray me.” Surely, he knows there is at least one sycophant on Saul’s staff who would do whatever Saul said, without regard to right or wrong.
2. (1b-3) In loyalty to David, Jonathan warns David.
But Jonathan, Saul’s son, delighted greatly in David. So Jonathan told David, saying, “My father Saul seeks to kill you. Therefore please be on your guard until morning, and stay in a secret place and hide. “And I will go out and stand beside my father in the field where you are, and I will speak with my father about you. Then what I observe, I will tell you.”
a. But Jonathan, Saul’s son, delighted much in David: We can know that Saul, and at least some on Saul’s staff, had criticized David a lot. They looked for any chink in David’s armor they could find. They looked for anything they could to bring against him, and if they could find nothing, they would twist or exaggerate something to make it seem something. You know Jonathan got an earful of this, but it didn’t change his opinion of David. He still delighted much in David.
b. So Jonathan told David: This would have made Saul furious, but Jonathan knew he was doing right.
i. How could Jonathan justify disobeying his father? Because Saul, his father and king, commanded him to do something that was clearly disobedient to God. This was an easy one, because Jonathan knew the Bible said, You shall not murder (Exodus 20:13). Jonathan didn’t have to spiritualize the meaning of murder, or consider this just a matter of disagreement. The Bible was clear, and Saul was on record as saying that they should kill David (1 Samuel 19:1).
ii. We are under authority, and commanded to submit to God’s order of authority in many different arenas. There is a Biblical, commanded submission from children to their parents, from citizens to their government, from employees to their employers, from Christians to their church leadership, and from wives to their husbands. Yet, even in all of those relationships, we are never excused from sin because we obeyed an authority that told us to sin. In this instance, it would have been wrong for Jonathan to obey his father and kill David.
iii. This was a case where Jonathan could say what the apostles said when they were told to stop preaching the gospel: We ought to obey God rather than men (Acts 5:29). But Jonathan also had the heart of the apostles in Acts 5; they were beaten severely, and were willing to take their lumps for what was right before God, rejoicing that they were counted worthy to suffer for His name (Acts 5:40-41). Jonathan was willing to take his lumps for his obedience to God, and not whine about it.
c. My father Saul seeks to kill you. Therefore please be on your guard until morning, and stay in a secret place and hide: Jonathan did more than refuse to help Saul. He helped David. Jonathan could have said, “Look, I want no part of this. I’m not going to help my father do something I know is wrong. But I won’t try to stop it either. I’ll just be neutral and let God work it out.” But Jonathan didn’t take that attitude.
i. Certainly, that is right attitude to take sometimes. The Bible does say that we should aspire to lead a quiet life, to mind your own business (1 Thessalonians 4:11). It is easy to get mixed up in things that are none of our business. But it is also wrong to stay “neutral” when God doesn’t want you to. It took courage for Jonathan to take David’s side in this matter, but he did. We often let others down because we lack the kind of courage Jonathan had.
ii. What made Jonathan put himself on David’s side? He delighted much in David. He trusted David, and was behind him all the way. He knew God was with David, so he wanted to be supporting David also.
iii. Do you wish someone would stick up for you like this, would love you, and be delighted much in you? Jesus Christ is delighted much in you. Not because of who you are or what you have done, but because He is full of grace and love and you have received it.
3. (4-5) In loyalty to David, Jonathan speaks to Saul.
Thus Jonathan spoke well of David to Saul his father, and said to him, “Let not the king sin against his servant, against David, because he has not sinned against you, and because his works have been very good toward you. For he took his life in his hands and killed the Philistine, and the Lord brought about a great deliverance for all Israel. You saw it and rejoiced. Why then will you sin against innocent blood, to kill David without a cause?”
a. Now Jonathan spoke well of David to Saul his father: Jonathan did more than secretly help David with information. He spoke well of David to Saul his father. Jonathan let Saul know, “Father you have a certain opinion of David. But I don’t share that opinion. I love and support David. You should also.” That took a lot of courage, but it was the right thing for Jonathan to do.
i. It was wonderful for Jonathan to support David secretly, when it was just him and David. That itself was a gift. It was another thing for Jonathan to support David before others, and before those who were against David. But that is what supporting someone is really all about. You can’t measure a person’s support by what they say about you to your face. You measure their support by how they back you when you aren’t around.
b. Let not the king sin against his servant: Jonathan was bold enough to tell his father that his anger and jealousy against David was sin, and to say, “he has not sinned against you.” Saul felt that David had sinned against him in some manner and he felt righteous in his cause. But Jonathan delivers a needed word of correction.
c. For he took his life in his hands and killed the Philistine, and the Lord brought about a great salvation for all Israel: Why did Jonathan remind Saul of these events? It wasn’t because Saul had forgotten them. It was because Saul “spun” these events with a meaning that justified his jealous desire to murder David.
i. Saul knew that David killed the Philistine. But Saul could not believe that David did it for a righteous reason. In his mind, he thought “David did it just to become famous and to take my throne. He’s a grasping traitor. I’m justified in killing him, because I have to kill him before he kills me!”
ii. Jonathan is trying to bring Saul back to reality. He reminds his father: “You saw it and rejoiced.” “When David first killed Goliath, you rejoiced just like everyone. Now Satan has filled your mind with envy and jealousy. Go back to how it first was in your mind.”
d. Why then will you sin against innocent blood, to kill David without a cause? Again, in Saul’s mind, there was a cause. In Saul’s mind, David was not innocent. But the truth was that he was innocent, and there was no cause to kill him. Jonathan is calling Saul back to this reality.
4. (6-7) The reconciliation between Saul and David.
So Saul heeded the voice of Jonathan, and Saul swore, “As the Lord lives, he shall not be killed.” Then Jonathan called David, and Jonathan told him all these things. So Jonathan brought David to Saul, and he was in his presence as in times past.
a. So Saul heeded the voice of Jonathan: This took real humility for Saul. It would have been easy to say, “I’m the king and I’m right. I don’t care what you say.” But in this case, Saul heeded the voice of Jonathan.
b. Saul swore, “As the Lord lives, he shall not be killed.” This shows that the Lord had genuinely touched Saul’s heart. God used Jonathan, but it wasn’t the work of Jonathan. It was the work of the Lord, and Saul recognized by declaring this oath.
i. Knowing the end of the story, this seems like a pretty hollow promise. But Saul was more accurate than he perhaps knew. It was totally true that as the Lord lives, he shall not be killed. But that was no credit to Saul, who kept trying to kill David!
ii. “And it is very likely Saul now spake as he thought. But if good thoughts look at any time into a wicked heart, they stay not there, as those that like not their lodging. The flashes of lightning may be discerned in the darkest prisons, but they are soon gone thence again: so here.” (Trapp)
c. So Jonathan brought David to Saul and he was in his presence as in times past: It seems to have all worked! The command to kill David is revoked. Saul and David are together again as in the “good old days.”
5. (8-10) David escapes another attempt on His life.
And there was war again; and David went out and fought with the Philistines, and struck them with a mighty blow, and they fled from him. Now the distressing spirit from the Lord came upon Saul as he sat in his house with his spear in his hand. And David was playing music with his hand. Then Saul sought to pin David to the wall with the spear, but he slipped away from Saul’s presence; and he drove the spear into the wall. So David fled and escaped that night.
a. And there was war again: In context, this speaks of more war between Israel and the Philistines. But it was also true spiritually. At the end of 1 Samuel 19:7, there was a truce in the spiritual war involving David and Saul. But whenever we are at a time of cease-fire in the spiritual war, we know the battle will begin again before long. It can always be said of our lives, and there was war again.
b. David went out and fought with the Philistines, and struck them with a mighty blow, and they fled from him: Spiritually, these are warning clouds of a coming storm. It was David’s success that aroused Saul’s jealousy before. When David was successful again, surely Saul would be tempted to jealousy again. What would Saul do with that temptation?
c. Now the distressing spirit from the Lord came upon Saul: Evil spirits were more than ready to attack Saul where he was most vulnerable. The attack was on the way; what would Saul do with this spiritual attack?
d. Saul . . . sat in his house with his spear in his hand: Saul is in a bad place. He is tempted and spiritually attacked, and now he has put himself in a potentially sinful situation. David was playing music with his hand, but Saul knew spears much better than music that praised God.
e. Then Saul sought to pin David to the wall with the spear: Here we go again! What happened to Saul’s change of heart? What happened to his oath that David would not be killed? All of that was thrown away as easily as the spear was thrown. But it didn’t “just happen.” Saul was unprepared to handle temptation, unprepared to handle spiritual attack, and had the opportunity to sin close at hand. Most people will trip up under those circumstances!
f. But he slipped away from Saul’s presence; and he drove the spear into the wall. David was gone, but the spear remained. The thing Saul didn’t need - the spear - was left. The one Saul really did need - David - was gone. Saul was a loser on both counts.
i. Remember 1 Samuel 19:8: And there was war again. Saul lost the war, and lost it completely. But David won the war when he slipped away from Saul’s presence. Saul has just made another determined effort to kill him, and David could have returned the spear with fury. But David said what he said before: “Lord, you put that man on the throne. If he is going to be removed, You are going to have to do it, because I won’t.”
h. So David fled and escaped that night: David never returned to the palace until he was king of Israel - some 20 years later! From now until the day Saul dies and David is crowned, David lives his life as a fugitive.
i. David was probably scared, angry, and hurt when he left the palace. “Lord, I thought you would protect me. How could I have been so stupid? Where was Jonathan when I needed him? I should have killed Saul. I can’t believe I passed up the chance.” But if David thought any of those things, he did not cling to them.
ii. How could God allow this? It seems so unfair. It was unfair, from a human level. But God needed to make David into a man of God, so He allowed it. Saul meant it for evil, but the Lord meant it for good. God is big enough to work all things together for good in your life also.
B. David flees from Saul.
1. (11-12) David escapes with the help from his wife Michal.
Saul also sent messengers to David’s house to watch him and to kill him in the morning. And Michal, David’s wife, told him, saying, “If you do not save your life tonight, tomorrow you will be killed.” So Michal let David down through a window. And he went and fled and escaped.
a. Previously, Saul swore, “As the Lord lives, he shall not be killed.” (1 Samuel 19:6). Now, for the second time, Saul goes back on that oath. He now sends “hit men” to David’s house to watch him and to kill him.
b. But Michal, David’s wife saves the day. Michal was Saul’s daughter, so this was a conflict of loyalties for Michal. Should she act in her father’s interests or in her husband’s interests? Here, she makes the right choice and supports her husband David.
i. Michal is acting according to the principle of Genesis 2:24: Therefore a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and they shall become one flesh. Though the Genesis passage speaks specifically of the husband, it expresses a principle that applies to both partners in a marriage: that the former family loyalties and obligations take a back seat to the loyalty and obligation to the new family.
c. Michal helped by warning David. She perhaps saw the “hit men” coming before he did, and she also knew the character of her father better than David did. Michal was probably less surprised than David was to find “hit men” from Saul against him.
i. David did well to receive this warning from his wife. Sometimes men are so hard headed and so hard hearted that they never hear how God might warn them through their wives. If David would have ignored this warning because he didn’t like the source, he might have ended up dead.
ii. At the same time, Michal spoke to David wisely: If you do not save your life tonight, tomorrow you will be killed. She might have said, “David here’s the problem let me tell you what to do.” She might have said, “David I am here to save your life. Let me tell you what to do.” Instead, she simply told David, “This is what I see. Now it is up to you. I’m not going to try to save your life, but the way I see it, if you do not save your life tonight, tomorrow you will be killed.”
d. Michal helped by letting David down through a window. As David decided on a course of action, she was there to support and help him put it into practice. Michal’s help was successful, because David fled and escaped.
e. During this night, when men watched his house and David escaped, he composed a song unto the Lord, found in Psalm 59. The introduction of that Psalm says, when Saul sent men, and they watched the house in order to kill him.
i. In Psalm 59, David takes his case before God: Deliver me from my enemies, O my God; defend me from those rise up against me. (Psalm 59:1)
ii. In Psalm 59, David describes his attackers: They lie in wait for my life . . . they growl like a dog . . . they belch out with their mouth; swords are their lips. (Psalm 59:3, 6-7)
iii. In Psalm 59, David declares his innocence: Not for my transgression nor for my sin, O Lord. They run and prepare themselves through no fault of mine. (Psalm 59:3-4)
iv. In Psalm 59, David expresses his trust in God: You, O Lord, shall laugh at them . . . my merciful God shall come to meet me. (Psalm 59:8, 10)
v. In Psalm 59, David ends with triumphant confidence in God: But I will sing of Your power; yes, I will sing aloud of Your mercy in the morning; for You have been my defense and refuge in the day of my trouble. To You, O my Strength, I will sing praises; for God is my defense, My God of mercy. (Psalm 59:16-17)
vi. It shows a man or a woman after God’s own heart to sing unto the Lord at a time like this time in David’s life!
2. (13-17) Michal deceives the men who came to kill David.
And Michal took an image and laid it in the bed, put a cover of goats’ hair for his head, and covered it with clothes. So when Saul sent messengers to take David, she said, “He is sick.” Then Saul sent the messengers back to see David, saying, “Bring him up to me in the bed, that I may kill him.” And when the messengers had come in, there was the image in the bed, with a cover of goats’ hair for his head. Then Saul said to Michal, “Why have you deceived me like this, and sent my enemy away, so that he has escaped?” And Michal answered Saul, “He said to me, ‘Let me go! Why should I kill you?’”
a. Michal took an image: The image was a teraphim, a figurine used as a household idol, or as a fertility and good luck charm. In ancient Israel, teraphim were intended as helps in worshipping the true God. They didn’t think of the teraphim as other gods, but as representing the Lord God of Israel.
i. Rachel, the wife of Jacob, also had teraphim (called household idols in Genesis 31:19). The would-be priest Micah used household idols in his corrupt worship of God (Judges 17:5). In 1 Samuel 15:23, when Samuel said to Saul, “For rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft, and stubbornness is as iniquity and idolatry,” the word idolatry is the word teraphim. In the godly reforms of Josiah, he prohibited the use of household idols (1 Kings 23:24).
ii. Clearly, God’s people had no business having or using an image like this. We can’t imagine that this image, this household idol, belonged to David; so it shows that Michal’s didn’t have the kind of relationship with God she should have. And, this weak relationship with God will show up in Michal as the story of David’s life unfolds (2 Samuel 6:16-23). “When we read of these images we are not surprised by the defects of character which we see in Michal.” (Balikie)
iii. Saul probably knew something of this character of his daughter Michal, and that is one reason why he gave her to David as wife: I will give her to him, that she may be a snare to him (1 Samuel 18:21).
b. Saul doesn’t seem to be taken in by his daughter’s deception. She said David was sick, but Saul said “Bring him up to me in the bed, that I may kill him.” This also shows something of the depth of hatred Saul had for David, because he wanted to deliver the death-blow himself (bring him up to me . . . that I may kill him).
c. He said to me, “Let me go! Why should I kill you?” Michal was faithful to David with her actions, but not with her words. She told Saul that David had threatened to kill her, and that is why she let him escape.
i. Michal said this to protect herself. Perhaps she felt that she had to paint herself as the victim so that her father wouldn’t kill her also. If this is the case, it is hard to be judgmental towards Michal; she has just seen her husband escape as a fugitive, she doesn’t know if he will live or die or when she will see him again, and she may fear for her own life. At the same time, it is hard to honor Michal as she protects herself by lying about her husband, and painting him as a man who would cold-bloodedly murder his wife.
ii. It may be that Michal, from beginning to end, acted in her self-interest. She helped David because she wanted to do something against her father. When Saul asked “Why have you deceived me like this?” she might have honestly replied, “Because I was looking for an occasion to stick it to you, Dad!” Knowing Saul’s weak character and relationship with the Lord, it wouldn’t surprise us to have such a messed-up family. But when it came down to it, she picked defending herself instead of supporting her husband.
d. My enemy: These are the saddest words in this passage. Saul, when describing David, calls him my enemy. David was really Saul’s friend, and David had done more to help Saul than just about anyone else. David was only the enemy of Saul because Saul wanted to see him that way.
C. David, pursued by Saul, flees to Naioth.
1. (18) David visits Samuel at Ramah.
So David fled and escaped, and went to Samuel at Ramah, and told him all that Saul had done to him. And he and Samuel went and stayed in Naioth.
a. Went to Samuel at Ramah and told him all that Saul had done to him: David did the right thing when in a difficult and confusing situation. He spent some time with a godly man. We can imagine David pouring out his heart to the prophet: “Samuel, you anointed me king, and look at what is happening! I guess it isn’t time yet, but why is it so hard? Does God want me dead? Why is the Lord allowing this?”
b. Stayed in Naioth: The word Naioth comes from the Hebrew word for residence. This may be speaking of Samuel’s home (which may have had “Naioth” title itself), or it may have been some landmark or specific place in Ramah. Whenever Naioth is mentioned, it is associated with Ramah.
2. (19-21) Saul sends messengers to capture David, but they are touched by the Holy Spirit and prophesy in the presence of Samuel and other prophets.
Now it was told Saul, saying, “Take note, David is at Naioth in Ramah!” Then Saul sent messengers to take David. And when they saw the group of prophets prophesying, and Samuel standing as leader over them, the Spirit of God came upon the messengers of Saul, and they also prophesied. And when Saul was told, he sent other messengers, and they prophesied likewise. Then Saul sent messengers again the third time, and they prophesied also.
a. Saul sent messengers to take David: Saul is wicked, but persistent. We can never admire the devil’s work, but we can admire the devil’s work ethic.
b. When they saw the group of prophets prophesying, and Samuel standing as leader over them: When the messengers of Saul came to capture David, they came in the middle of a worship meeting. Samuel and his “students” (the group of prophets) were waiting on the Lord, worshipping Him, speaking to the Lord and hearing from Him.
i. When it says that they were all prophesying, it isn’t that they were all predicting the future. The Hebrew word simply has the idea of speaking under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. They were probably all giving spontaneous and inspired praise to God.
c. The Spirit of God came upon the messengers of Saul, and they also prophesied: They were caught up in the atmosphere of worship and devotion to God, and the Spirit of God came upon them.
i. Why did the Holy Spirit do this? These were not men who were seeking diligently after God, longing to be filled with the Spirit. Then why did the Holy Spirit come upon them? First, because God was protecting David, and this was His way of “disarming” those who came to capture David. We can just imagine the messengers coming, and seeing David with Samuel the prophet and all the other students of Samuel. They are having a worship meeting, and God’s Spirit is wonderfully poured out. The messengers thought, “This will be easy! Look at how defenseless David is! Look at how distracted he is! And none of these prophets can stop us!” But the Spirit of the Lord had other plans, and protected David. The Holy Spirit knows how to protect us! The safest place for us to be in the whole world is walking in the Spirit.
ii. Second, this was the Holy Spirit’s warning to these men and to Saul. It is as if the Spirit said “I don’t want David captured. I am sending these men home empty handed. Instead of seeking to kill David, you should seek to be filled with the Spirit of God.”
d. He sent other messengers: When the first messengers returned home empty handed and reported to Saul what happened, Saul didn’t get the message. So, he sent other messengers, but the same thing happened: they prophesied likewise. Saul still didn’t get the message, so he sent messengers again the third time, and they prophesied also.
i. How long until Saul listens to the Holy Spirit? Three sets of messengers come back, and God says the same thing each time through them.
3. (22-24) Saul pursues David himself, but he also prophesies in the presence of Samuel and the prophets.
Then he also went to Ramah, and came to the great well that is at Sechu. So he asked, and said, “Where are Samuel and David?” And someone said, “Indeed they are at Naioth in Ramah.” So he went there to Naioth in Ramah. Then the Spirit of God was upon him also, and he went on and prophesied until he came to Naioth in Ramah. And he also stripped off his clothes and prophesied before Samuel in like manner, and lay down naked all that day and all that night. Therefore they say, “Is Saul also among the prophets?”
a. Then he also went to Ramah: Three times, the Holy Spirit said to Saul, “Leave David alone. My Spirit is stronger than you are. You will never win this battle against Me and against David.” But Saul didn’t listen. Instead, to an even greater degree, Saul took matters into his own hands: he also went to Ramah.
b. Then the Spirit of God was upon him also: Why did the Holy Spirit come upon Saul? For the same reasons He came upon the messengers Saul sent to capture David. First, to prevent David’s capture. Second, to tell Saul, “Hands off My servant David. I am in charge here.”
i. There may have been an additional message to Saul in this: “Saul, you are prophesying now, speaking beautiful words of praise and wonder to Me. This is how I could work in you all the time if you were humble and willing.”
c. He also stripped off his clothes and prophesied: The Spirit prompted Saul to do this as an expression of deep humility. Saul would not humble himself before God, and so God will find a way to humble him.
i. It is unlikely - though possible - that Saul stripped himself bare. The Hebrew word for naked can mean that a person has just stripped themselves down to their undergarments. Probably, Saul took off all of his royal robes that said “prestige” and “royalty,” and laid himself out before the Lord in his plain linen undergarments. It was a way for the Lord to say, “You really aren’t a king any more, Saul. I’ve stripped you of your royal glory.”
ii. Does this seem extreme? It is always extreme when God humbles us. That’s why God counsels us to humble ourselves instead of “making” Him do it: Therefore humble yourselves under the mighty hand of God, that He may exalt you in due time. (1 Peter 5:6)
iii. God showed much grace to Saul by putting him in a place where it would be easy to repent, easy to return to the Lord, and easy to stop his backsliding. He was right there! The Lord could not have made it any easier! Yet Saul still had to make a choice to surrender to the power of God.
iv. A person can be affected by the power of God (resulting in amazing experiences), but not surrendered to the power of God, which results in a change of life.
d. Is Saul also among the prophets? This phrase was first mentioned in 1 Samuel 10:10-12, and it expressed astonishment that someone had become a religious fanatic. As some used to say of someone who was not a religious person who became very religious, “He got religion?” Saul was an unspiritual man who became very spiritual at the time when the Spirit of the Lord came upon him.
e. The chapter ends with Saul’s plan completely frustrated. When David first came to Samuel, he probably thought he was really vulnerable there. “Samuel, Saul is after me! I need a sword! I need protection! I need soldiers! I need a guard!” The old prophet could have told David, “What you really need to do is worship the Lord and wait on Him. Let’s have a prayer meeting!” And David was indeed safe waiting on the Lord and worshipping Him.
© 2001 David Guzik - No distribution beyond personal use without permission